This lecture was given at the symposium Le Livre. La Roumanie. L'Europe, held in Bucharest in September, 2011. Panchenko's book, Ближневосточное Православие под османским владычеством. Первые три столетия (1516–1831) [Near Eastern Orthodoxy under Ottoman Rule: The First Three Centuries (1516-1831)], is absolutely essential reading for the history of the Orthodox Church in the Middle East during the Ottoman period. Its table of contents, in English and Russian, are listed here. In this video, Panchenko talks about relations between the Patriarchate of Antioch and Rome in the 16th Century and the polemic against the pope by Metropolitan Anastasius Mujalla.