Friday, March 6, 2015

Carol Saba on the Meaning of the Plight of Middle Eastern Christianity for the West

French original here. You can also listen to it here.

Middle Eastern Christians: Is there a Pilot on the Plane?

"There are boiling cauldrons," declared former Prime Minister Michel Rocard, grand old man of French social democracy, last Thursday on Europe 1, having just published Le suicide de l'Occident, suicide de l'humanité? with Flammarion. The question-mark implicitly suggests the West's responsibility for the tragedies in the world today. "Our society is in the process of committing suicide. Speculation and greed have strangled the economy. Commodification suffocates humanity and the devastation of the environment threatens life. The precipice is already dangerously close and we blithely continue our march towards collapse." Rocard, who denounces shortsighted visions of the West, calls for awareness of the multiple threats that are arising simultaneously but that do not necessarily have the same causes. "The economic issue should be the priority," he says, because "it is by letting the economy deteriorate that everything else deteriorates. Ukraine, Japan and China, the Middle East..."

Yesterday, also on Europe 1, another grand old man and intellectual denounced the horrors inflicted on the Christians of the Middle East. For Jean d'Ormesson, an academic of the Right who even at 89 has held on to a great intellectual liveliness, "the management of savagery" is a new brand of this nameless horror, while in totalitarianism in the past hid itself in order to work its evil. Someone who knows how to measure his words, he does not hesitate to describe the trials of Middle Eastern Christians as a real "genocide". He calls for genuine awareness and, most importantly, for coordinated action that would prevent the "disappearance" of Middle Eastern Christians including, if necessary, military action on the ground.

According to Jean d'Ormesson, the disappearance of Middle Eastern Christians is an orchestrated undertaking, as attested by the horrible reality on the ground, as well as by the studies published in the book Le livre noir de la condition des chrétiens dans le monde (édition XO), which was organized by my friend Samuel Lieven, a journalist at the newspaper La Croix, under the direction of Mgr Jean-Michel di Falco, Timothy Radcliffe, and Andréa Riccardi-- a book that I highly recommend reading. Is it necessary to recall the recent kidnapping of 220 Assyrian Christians in the region of Hessake in Northeast Syria? And before that, the appalling decapitation of Copts? And the exodus of Iraqi Christians? And the kidnapping of the Orthodox nuns of Maaloula, who fortunately were later released? And the emblematic kidnapping, which sadly has gone on for two years, of the two bishops of Aleppo, Paul Yazigi and John Ibrahim?

Of course, we should feel indignation on behalf of all victims, including, Jean d'Ormesson says, for the Jordanian pilot and also for our own here in France killed in early January. However, Jean d'Ormesson is right and, even if he does not put it this way himself, I will say it: it's time to realize that the tragedies of Middle Eastern Christians are harbingers of our own tragedies here in the West, that their descent into hell is our own as well, and that in saving them we also save ourselves.

But be careful not to misread the fight! The beheadings of the Copts in Libya certainly targeted the Christians of Egypt but it also targeted-- in my opinion it especially targeted-- the Egyptian model of Christian-Muslim coexistence which is certainly not perfect but remains the only bulwark against the radical, "monolithic" societies based on terror that are on offer for us. Moreover, by declaring seven days of national mourning to honor the 21 Egyptian Coptic martyrs, Egyptian President al-Sisi perfectly understood the message and has given the correct response. It is perhaps one of the few times that the Copts of Egypt, despite being one of the historical and original components of that nation, have felt themselves honored by their state as citizens.

At the heart of the current dramas in the Arab world, there is certainly a great trial for Middle Eastern Christians. But they are only the symbol of the oak that some are seeking to cut down. The confrontation aims to establish "radically monolithic" societies on the ruins of societies tolerant of diversity. Yes, the Eastern Question is, cruelly and at full speed, catching up with the West which has long kept it at a distance, focusing its energies and political interests elsewhere. At a time when France is wondering about the dialogue with Islam in France, it has become obvious that the pressing issue of what is happening in the Middle East is in the foreground for us as well, here and now. The urgent need, then, for France, for the West in general, and also for Russia would be to resolve on a just basis the nagging problems of the Middle East that feed every radicalism. Then, it is appropriate to actively contribute to the emergence of a new Arab political order, with truly democratic nation-states that respect fundamental rights, rather than to support various local and region powers that are not working in this direction-- in fact, just the opposite.

Only a single form of citizenship with equal rights and responsibilities for all, is the best antidote to the exploitation of religion by politics and vice versa, whether in the Middle East or elsewhere.

Tuesday, March 3, 2015

David Bertaina Reviews The Orthodox Church in the Arab World, 700-1700

The Winter 2015 issue of Sophia, the quarterly journal of the Melkite Catholic Eparchy of Newton, features, among other articles of interest, a review by David Bertaina, Associate Professor of Comparative Religions in the History Department of the University of Illinois at Springfield, of The Orthodox Church in the Arab World, 700-1700: An Anthology of Sources

The entire review can be read in pdf here.


The Orthodox Church in the Arab World, 700-1700

By David Bertaina, PhD

The Orthodox Church in the Arab World, 700-1700: An Anthology of Sources. Edited by Samuel Noble and Alexander Treiger. Northern Illinois University Press, 2014. 375 Pages. $35.

The fourth century was an age of conflict between the Nicene faith (which we profess each Sunday at liturgy) and the heresy of Arianism (the belief that Jesus was a lesser deity separate from God). At one point, the Roman Emperor Valens even tried to force his citizens to follow him into Arianism. In response to his coercion, the Roman ally and Arab queen Mavia rebelled against his policies, successfully receiving an orthodox Arab monk named Moses as bishop of her people. Christian Arabic poetry even commemorated this triumph, according the fifth-century Church historian Sozomen. 

Stories such as this one remind us that Arab Christianity is an ancient faith, stretching back millennia into Roman times. With this in mind, The Orthodox Church in the Arab World should be recognized as one of the most important resources published for English-speaking Melkites in recent years. The book reminds its readers that Arab Christians have remained standard bearers for Christianity and contributed to the cultural vibrancy of the Middle East in the midst of Islam. Indeed, the book reminds Melkites about the historical origins and development of their identity.

The Orthodox Church in the Arab World is aimed at non-specialists, including those interested in the history of Christianity and those seeking to increase their faith. It introduces non-Arabic speakers to the biblical studies, theology, lives of the saints, historical writings, poetry, and inter-religious writings of Arab Christians from 700-1700. In other words, it covers Arabic-speaking Christians in the Levant from the rise of Islam until the split of the Church into the Antiochian Orthodox and Melkite Greek Catholic Churches.

The introduction to the book, a real gem thanks to the editors, Samuel Noble and Alexander Treiger, provides a concise historical survey of Arab Christianity from its origins to the eighteenth century. They address its origins before the rise of Islam, its significance related to Muhammad, Christian responses to the Muslim conquest, life under the Umayyads in Damascus (661-750), the height of Christian Arabic literature under the Abbasids (750-1258), Arab Christians during the Byzantine reconquest of Antioch, relations with Crusaders, Mongols, and Mamluks, and finally the situation in relation to the Ottomans.


History is one of the most profitable ways of understanding Melkite identity. It enables us to imagine a world greater than the one we presently experience and to empathize with the peoples who have walked the same earth and contributed to its present state. The introductions to each chapter and the quality translations in this book provide moments of entertainment, suspense, historical insight, and a reason to believe in the faith that has been preserved and shared by Arab Christians.

I strongly recommend The Orthodox Church in the Arab World as a way to learn more the Melkite Church, its history, its identity, and what that means for us today. The Orthodox Church in the Arab World is a treasure to be read and shared widely.

Sunday, March 1, 2015

Met Georges Khodr on Being Arab

Arabic original here.

Arabity and Islam

I feel myself to be from this Middle East that existed before the Arabs and extends to them. The Middle East was arabized in the conquest, but only partially. It was the Middle East of Christ before the Arab Conquest and remained so to a great extent because the Muslims are also Middle Easterners in the broad sense of the term. They did not come from the Peninsula. The Peninsula is one of our branches, but before that we are from Syria [Bilad al-Sham], which includes Mount Lebanon. Without making things complicated, we are Syrian [min al-Sham] in origin and Arab by adoption and adoption, in the law of the people of this country, is like sonship. These words pertain to culture and sensibility, not to politics.

There should be no division over these words because they do not imply a political choice. This is what we are of. You speak Arabic, and there is no sense in searching for the essence of Arabity. It is a nationality and nationalities do not have essences. The longstanding debate over our arabity or the extent of our arabity is a pointless debate for me, so long as we have been the pioneers of Arabic language and literature and lovers of all its nations. Do you want something stronger than love in order for us to become Arabs?

Any discussion of our Arabity and its extent is a sterile discussion while we are in it. Does a person define his own place? Of course we are Arabs if we consider ourselves to be concerned with the cultural fate of this nation and sympathetic to the Arabs in determining this fate. Arabness, in its cultural and cooperative sense is first and foremost a choice made today and not research into the distant past. I am one with the Arab peoples around me because, like them, I seek the Arab's freedom and their say in international affairs. I am one with them in my Lebanese, Syrian or Palestinian individuality. I am not an Arab in the sense that I consider myself to be the same as an Iraqi or Hejazi. With them I am an Arab because they are with me and because I want them with me in establishing the right of all Arabs  to dignity. Our Arabness is no longer so much a sort of poetic nationalism as it is the commitment of our peoples to their right to life and cultural production.

From this perspective, our arabity is no longer the dissolution of its parts into a dream. It is the realization of its parts in cultural production. From this perspective, arabity is not separate from Lebanese consciousness, since the former does not permit the latter to see itself as separate from it, just as it does not permit it to eliminate itself in order to confirm Arabness.

Arabity is part of world civilization. In this precise sense it is called a culture-- that is, a belonging. This is fundamental to establishing a person's personality. It is something complete, if you understand it as tied to the cultural whole. Nothing in the world is complete unless it is organically tied to other people. However, ties are not the same thing as dissolution.

Therefore there is no room to doubt that we exist on the one hand in ourselves and on the other hand through our participation. Thus there is no dissolving into an arabity that gives no value to the local cultures within it and there is also no arabity that does not have a vision of its own unity-- that is, the unity of its destiny. The world enriched it with diversity, that is, with encounter, and an encounter is not a clash.

I am free to include in my arabity feelings or sentiments unknown to Arabs outside of Syria, as Syria gave arabity something nothing else has given it. Perhaps this was because it is older than the civilization of the Arabs that came to it through conquest. I have always felt that we gave the countries of the Arabs what they had not recieved from the Arabs of the peninsula. Arabity is not what languished in the peninsula after Islam but rather what it extended to the world. Therefore if we speak comprehensively about Arab civilization, we mean that which grew great in Syria and from which others were nourished. Islam itself only attained its cultural extent when it left the peninsula. Arabity, by its nature, is that which extends like the Bedouin. Arabity was only known through Islam, in its leaving the peninsula.

It had not been known in all its senses except as the people of my country adopted it and gave it its Byzantine sense. Arabity became civilized. That is, the cities in Syria became part of it. When it was in the desert, it was not civilized. What has been called the "Arab conquest" in the expansion of language was a Syrian conquest, then an Iraqi one. Arabity appeared in the Arabian Peninsula, then developed in Syria. Everything else is an image borrowed from Syria.

I was sad when I read that Arabs only make up one sixth of all Muslims, but the Muslims of our country are intellectually the heart of Islam. However, there is an overlap and interaction between Islam and arabity that is clear in intellectual life. This was our historical path until God opened other doors to us.

Arabity is a culturally Islamic concept that can be secularized. That is not what I am trying to do. I am happy for the reality of Arabity and the reality of Islam to be closely tied. Historically, this is clear-- and i say this as a committed Christian, signing on to this path in freedom and love. I, a Christian, go down every byway while remaining faithful to how I was raised. Religion moves and flows. Why should we want to limit it within a cultural template?

We in this country know all the byways of Middle Eastern history and move within them, and each one of us remains subject to his religious choice, if we want to be honest. However, religious choice does not impede cultural diversity, all within arabity. Within it, you can be  a strongly-believing Christian, all while loving Muslims and if you do not, then your Christianity is in vain.

We know these things very well, we who are committed to the Christian faith in its Middle-Eastern aspect, because we have kept company with Islam and with Muslims. At the very least, we have come to know that they are our destiny and that we are their destiny. In the best case, we have seen that we love them and that they love us. We, the followers of the Nazarene, have understood that love is all of existence.

You, a deeply-believing Christian, love the Muslims because you see them with you in the city, in the street, in language and also, at a higher level, because you have come to know Islam and that there is something to love in it.

Wednesday, February 25, 2015

The Message of Patriarch Theophilos III on the Start of Lent

Although the Arabic text is clearly a somewhat awkward translation, it is not upon on the Patriarchate of Jerusalem's website and,to my knowledge, it has only been published by the Jordanian state news agency, Petra.

The Message of Theophilos III on the Occasion of the Start of the 40-Day Fast

Amman, February 25 (Petra)-- Patriarch of Jerusalem and All Jordan and Palestine, Theophilos III issued a message on the occasion of the start of the forty-day fast, in which he said:

In Greek Orthodox Christianity, fasting is closely tied to the sincere desire to draw near to God and to humble the self before Him.

The fast is intertwined with prayer and supplication to the Creator. Fasting has conditions that appear in the Holy Bible, among which the Book of Isaiah mentions, "Is this not the fast that I have chosen: To loose the bonds of wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, to let the oppressed go free, and that you break every yoke? Is it not to share your bread with the hungry, and that you bring to your house the poor who are cast out; when you see the naked, that you cover him, and not hide yourself from your own flesh?" Therefore we believe that fasting in a manner that is acceptable to the Lord is an important and fundamental part of proper human behavior. Although we are called to practice proper human behavior both in and out of the time of fasting, intensifying it during this holy time affirms that fasting is a comprehensive state in which the human person bows to God's desire, is led by His teachings, prays to Him intensely, spreads love, renounces hatred and rancor and expels the whispering of Satan, aided by the spiritual power that results from approaching God through the fast  that gives a mystical dimension to the Christian believer.

As for the unacceptable fast, Christ warned us of this when he said in the Holy Gospel of Matthew, "When you fast, do not be like the hypocrites, with a sad countenance. For they disfigure their faces that they may appear to men to be fasting. Assuredly, I say to you, they have their reward." With this warning, we distance ourselves from superficial fasting, which loses the true meaning of the comprehensive state of fasting because in true, acceptable fasting there is a basic step toward overcoming the passions and worldly pleasures and it prepares the soul for salvation from evils and sin.

Fasting during one's youth has a special importance because it establishes a lifelong journey of commitment to the teachings of Christ the Lord and His great message. Christian youth, who face enormous challenges-- especially in this region of the world on account of political instability and the loss of peace in many parts of it, economic hardships, and other disadvantages, obstacles and difficulties-- are in need of the spiritual strength that springs from drawing near to God through prayer and fasting. Through fasting, hearts are purified, vision becomes clearer, and forces are united to face challenges and dangers, and new pages are opened in fraternal relations-- especially between the children of  the Greek Orthodox Church and her leadership. May this produce a new start in relations, especially with the young generation, governed by truth, developed by love, and shepherded by God.

Our Greek Orthodox Church places the future in the hands of her Orthodox youth in Jordan and Palestine, this generation who are zealous for its Patriarchate of Jerusalem, the Mother of Churches, and look to it as an extension of themselves to their Christian roots that go deep in the Holy Land. Likewise, the Church sees  in her Orthodox youth the rightful heir of her inheritance and history and her positive extension that is active in society in general. The paramount importance of our Orthodox youth cannot be risked and and left undefended, without true Orthodox preaching that springs from the depth of our faith in the message of love that Christ the Lord brought.

So that the contents of this paternal message do not go unapplied in practice, the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate and its monasteries in all parts of the Holy Land open their arms to all youth from our Orthodox flock to form groups for dialogue and activity to deal with all the issues that have been raised and to lay the foundation for a future that brings together the Orthodox Church with her youth so that we may face all challenges together, armed with grace and divine spiritual power given to us by our faith in Christ, especially during the days of the blessed fast.

Tuesday, February 24, 2015

Met Georges Khodr on Lent

Arabic original here.

The Fast

You empty yourself of food or of certain foods in order to come to know that you are needy for the bread of God. Abstinence is a symbol of your poverty before Him. It is training the soul in poverty before Him and before others. Therefore tomorrow, the evening when we enter into this training, we ask others for forgiveness in the services of my church because, if they forgive us, they permit us to enter the fast as poor people. This is because if we are hungry, we train ourselves in the fact that we are hungry for God's mercy.

The fast has no meaning unless you practice it by admitting to your sin. This admission is the beginning of your being justified, until God clothes you in Himself. You hunger for God, not for food. All of our practices are training until we are clothed in God by His grace. That is, until He accepts us. You do not acquire God through fasting. He acquires you by His love. He has always been the initiator and the faith for you to accept.

This Sunday evening, each one of us will kneel before those who attend vespers and ask for their forgiveness in clear words, embracing them so that we may enter the fast in love. Abstinence is what is desired. Your repenting to him and together to God makes you worthy of abstinence. Without a god returning to you, you are just doing another diet. Without a face that you love, you are not fasting. Without a face that you love, you have no pascha. Without a face that you love, you are nothing.
For you to abstain this coming Monday from food is for you to abstain from sin, because sin was your food. For you to be abstinent does not mean anything unless after that you desire to encounter a face that is the face of your Lord because He alone sees you in love.

For or abstinence is nothing, however we hope that if we abstain in the love of God, we will encounter Him because in this season we refrain from the food of the body in order to approach the Lord existentially. If Pascha is joy, then fasting is preparation for joy, just as the prayers of betrothal are for us preparation for marriage. We are not against the body. We are for training it. How can we be against the body when Christ clothed Himself in it? We are against wearing the body out with sin because sin is against our love for God.

Those who fast believe in training the body. They are not against it, nor can they be because the Lord clothed Himself in a body. Neither eating nor abstaining is anything. Everything is for you to love God and for us the fast is a means in which we are instructed in this love. It was explained to us at the very beginning of Christianity that you fast in order to give to the poor the price of the food from which you abstained. If you ignore the poor, then you are not fasting.

The Frenchman Pascal, a great man in Christianity, said, "I have loved poverty because Christ loved it." You deprive yourself in order to love. Anything apart from that is just outward form. We are not against pleasure. We are against pleasure-seeking. We are not against the body, but we are against the mad pursuit of the body.

Here the faithful must pay heed to what is truly sought during this season.  It is not merely abstinence. What is sought is the face of God. You train yourself to seek it because it is the first thing that was abandoned. Therefore, we must remind yourselves that our first exercise is not abstinence, but rather reading the word of God. We do not hunger for food.  We are instructed in it. We hunger for the word of God. Therefore we must understand that we abstain from foods in order to eat the word of God. God, God and nothing else. So it pains me when someone abstains from foods but does not listen to the word of God and read it. It is only by this reading that you will repay your hunger.
There is no practice in Christianity that is not for the sake of love, love of God and of others. Everything else is a decoration. Love until there are no more words that must be translated into deeds, including fasting. It is true that the goal of fasting is for God. However, in its implementation it is for our brothers, for giving.

The body, detached from the heart, does not concern us. For us to love God and not to translate this into giving to our brothers is generally a delusion. If you do not love your brother whom you see, how can you love God whom you do not see? You are with the other in the presence of God. If you have banished the other from your love, then you have no god. Take the other with you and go to God. Until you arrive.

The superficial Christian thinks that he will arrive through practices. This is the summit of delusions. You arrive through love because it is the end and the means together. However, do not forget that love does not remain only in the mind. It is embodied by turning to others. If you do not go out from your own room to others, you do not love. This is why Jesus demanded that those who love Him to leave their father and mother-- that is, to shed the material things that keep them from God. You must always leave things and people in order to encounter Christ. You must always strip away in order to see God. If anything of the world is attached to you, you have no vision of God.

Monday, February 23, 2015

Met Georges Khodr: Do not lay up for yourselves treasures on earth

Arabic original here.

"Do not lay up for yourselves treasures on earth"

The Apostle Paul tells us in today's epistle, "The night is far spent, the day is at hand." Behold, we set aside the works of darkness and approach the light, the light that will come at Holy Pascha. However, before Pascha this divine light comes through the efforts that we will undertake by mercy from our Lord and by His favor.

The Evangelist Matthew has spoken to us about the fasting that we undertake for God's sake, which we undertake in secret, without making a show or admitting to it, but we know it as a mercy from our Lord and we fight to acquire the grace of contentment and so that we may be trained in the way of the Lord and the fear of Him.

It is not an issue of refraining from food or drink. These are exercises, practice by which we train for something higher. Of course, we must submit our body to the fast in order to tame it because there is something better than the body and in order to make it feel the presence of the poor. Mercy is one of the dimensions of the fast. The purpose of the fast is for us to be trained in it in the school of mercy.

Today the Lord tells us at the end of the Gospel reading, "Do not lay up for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth and rust destroy and where thieves break in and steal." That means, do not place your reliance on money, but know that there are poor people who need this money and that they have a right to it. Giving is not a sort of optional charity. You do not have a say in whether to give or not to give. It is an obligation because the earth belongs to all people and the riches of the earth belong to everyone.

"Do not lay up for yourselves treasures on earth  for where your treasure is, there your heart will be also." This means that if you consider money to be your treasure, then your hearts will be full of the love of it and if you consider the kingdom of God to be your treasure, then your hearts will be filled with God. Life must not be a state of confusion between God and the world, where we hesitate between Christ and what is not Christ. Therefore, we enter into the struggle of this fast affirming that Christ is all of life and so we will enter into the calm sobriety of Christ so that we may build for Him a glorious church, not of stone but of hearts living in harmony.

The fast is a struggle that each of us undertakes according to his ability and as his health permits. This is as regards food and drink. However, we all undertake it as regards its spiritual aspect. That is, we are all called to love, to forgiveness, and to hold all people close to our hearts, so that God may hold us close to His heart. If we love people, then we are God's beloved and if we hate people, then we are separated from God. There is nothing in the Christian Church but this: that we love each other and that we strive to remain in this love all our life.

Whatever people say about us and whatever they do, all people are God's beloved and the children of God and so we love them and support them and we fast from gossiping so that we may all have a share in the Lord's love. With these feelings, let us enter Blessed Lent so that God may make it a season of blessings for us and show us at its end a great and glorious Pascha by which we are blessed with love, forgiveness, peace and joy.

Friday, February 20, 2015

An Interview with Patriarch John X in Russia

Arabic original (presumably to be published in Russian) here.

An Interview with His Beatitude John X, Patriarch of Antioch and All the East

Unity Magazine: Your Beatitude, from the very first day of its establishment,  the See of Antioch has been a place of constant sacrifices, of struggle and of trials. From the formation of the first Christian groups, the Christological controversies arose, followed by competition between theological schools, then the tribulations associated with the Islamic conquest in the Middle East. It seemed as though Antioch was living its last days, but the Lord took care of things and the Church withstood and continues until today, bearing witness to the true Christ among her millions of faithful who are not only in the Middle East, but throughout the world.
Today, as her head, how do you view the power of the work of the the Church of Antioch?

His Beatitude: The Church of Antioch is the Church of the Spirit par excellence. Moreover, it is the Church of the Spirit who does not sleep. In Antioch, faith boils with apostolic zeal. It is from this perspective that we read her history, with all its ups and downs. For there to be schools of theology and theological orientations in her and elsewhere, this is is nothing other than a reflection of the freedom of the Spirit and the theology blazing within it. History may have born down upon Antioch and upon its church, but hardship creates men and it creates firm and unshakeable faith in the Lord. Many people in the world may live as Christians, but Antioch and Moscow, like others, have lived and continue to live a Christianity embodied in life. They live it as a movement of life and as the core of their human essence human , not as a purely theoretical faith. The Church of Antioch is trying, as much as it has been given by God to do so in these difficult circumstances, to be at the side of its displaced and afflicted people. It is trying to embody in word and deed the saying of its son, John Chrysostom, "The neighbor is the altar of God." The best thing that this church is offering today is that it is at the side of the sorrowing and needy.

Unity Magazine: It is unfortunate that politics generally determine not only the fate of peoples but also the situation of religion in the world. You were elected patriarch at a historic and tragic time, when there suddenly arose a tense religious situation in the Middle East, with news arriving of mass persecution and the killing of thousands of the faithful and the destruction of Christian holy sites. What possible things must the Orthodox throughout the world do to help the people of your church in Syria and other countries in the region?

His Beatitude: There is no doubt that what is happening in the Middle East is a struggle between the logic of listening to moderation and the logic of extremism and extremist ideologies. We are not exaggerating if we say that the Middle East has known coexistence between all its constitutent elements. Let us go back only four years and remember how things were and how they have become now. There is a tragic situation, no doubt, however tragedy does not mean that we despair and surrendered to a fate that we do not want. There is persecution of Christians and of other voices of moderation. There is the destruction of the monuments of coexistence. We await from the world more than verbal solidarity, because we are fed up with the language of promises and want the language of deeds. The entire world is looking on at the tragedy of refugees, at the tragedy of starving people and instead of encouraging dialogue, we are seeing some of them continue a policy of economic sanctions that are smothering the Syrian people while the arms trade is wide open.
The entire world is looking on at the crisis of our brothers, Metropolitans Yuhanna Ibrahim and Paul Yazigi and it limits itself to solidarity or even silence. We are here in Russia first of all to make our pain at what is happening heard. Let us put this question to the entire world: where are our bishops?
Of course, we thank all those with good intentions and all the good people who are giving their money to help our people and we hope that everyone realizes that the primary aid to Christians lies politically in pushing to bring about peace in our first land and that  the necessary material or moral aid to them and others and to all the sorrowing people in this world is the primary test of Christianity and of Orthodoxy in particular.

Unity Magazine: What are the challenges present in the global system that pose a threat to Christian civilization, especially those that exist in the Islamic world in whose environment your church lives? Is it sufficient for the people of your church to preserve the power of faith, spiritual struggle and humility in a society exploding with evil, as Christians are called agents of the West and of the United States? Is dialogue and mutual understanding between Eastern and Western civilizations possible in the present situation?

His Beatitude: The Christians in the Middle East support their own countries and they are native to them. They are not visitors or the remnants of campaigns. Let that be clear. The Christians have never been agents of anyone, but rather have been at the side of those who want the best for their countries and their nations.
The loadstar of the Orthodox has always been the good of their countries. Their orientation has never been factional or sectarian. It is their right to live in peace in the land of their forefathers and it is their right and obligation to defend it in the face of outsiders.

Unity Magazine: Damascus is not only the city of the Apostle Paul's conversion. It is also the historical place of great ascetics and saints. What is the sitation of the Christians in Damascus? What remains in the people's conscience? What remains of the historical heritage of those times?

His Beatitude: The fate of Damascus is to always be the city of those who are guided along the true path. This is the meaning of the French proverb, "He has found the road to Damascus." The situation of the Christians in Damascus is the situation of those who desire to live in security and peace. We know that the days are hard for us and for everyone. However, we must not forget that the ashes of tribulation cannot obscure the ray of light and the flash of truth. The historical truth is that in the bright days of its history, Syria has known coexistence among all its communities.
If one looks at history, let him be bee that Saint Basil the Great speaks of, selecting the best of the flowers. Let us constantly remember that four years of turmoil should not shake the image of peace and beauty in this Middle East that we love and whose peace we desire.
There remains in the consciousness of the people all the historical heritage of  bygone times.
It remains that our Christian forefathers endured everything and we were nursed with faith in Christ along with our mother's milk. In turn, we shall transmit this faith to our children and we shall transmit along with it our attachment to the land of Antioch, which first marked us with the name of Christ.

Unity Magazine: In 2016 there awaits an important event, the Pan-Orthodox Council in Istanbul. In your view, how has the world changed in the two thousand years since the necessity of holding a council such as this was declared in Jerusalem, and what do you regard as the most important thing among its decisions?

His Beatitude: It is good, indeed it is necessary for brothers to meet together, especially at the present time. And it is good, indeed it is an obligation for their meeting to transcend the level of formalities in order to truly touch upon the concerns of their churches and the concerns of their people. It is necessary for all of us to look to the base of the pyramid, to the people and their needs, before we go on to study the taxis of sees. The standard of the council's success is in the good preparation for it and in removing the barriers that prevent brothers from sitting together. In all simplicity, we hope for a solution to the issue of Jerusalem's assault on the Church of Antioch represented by the installment of an "archbishop" over Qatar, which geographically, ecclesiastically and canonically belongs to the Patriarchate of Antioch. We regret that the Patriarchate of Jerusalem has added insult to injury and causes all attempts at mediating a solution to hit a wall. We believe that the most important deliberations and decisions of this council will be those that examine the issue of the presence of Christians in the Middle East. Their deeply-rooted presence there is a bridge to the Islamic world and elsewhere and it is a necessity and a pillar for Orthodox Christian witness to Jesus Christ in His land and a bridge by which all may come together. We likewise look with interest at the issue of the diaspora, the Christian presence there and the ecclesiastical organization in the countries of the diaspora.

Unity Magazine: Are readers are interested in getting to know you better. How did you, a person passionate about music, choose the path of serving the Lord? What are the wishes and duties that you have set before your eyes? What are the priorities for you, as head of the ancient Church of Antioch?

His Beatitude: I grew up in Lattakia and was raised in the diocese that had been entrusted to my predecessor, Ignatius IV when he was metropolitan there. In 1979, i was ordained deacon by His Eminence Metropolitan John Mansour of Lattakia. I studied at Balamand and completed my theological education in Greece. I was elected bishop of el-Hosn in 1995 and metropolitan of Europe in 2008. The fathers of the Holy Synod of Antioch designated me as patriarch in December 2012. I remember that when I entered Damascus on December 20, 2012 I was given a candle in the Maryamiyya Cathedral. I was asked that day, "What is your program, Your Beatitude?" I responded simply, "To be like this candle. I melt away to the extent of my weaknesses so that the Church of Christ may lift up her people. I melt away in service as much as God has granted.

Unity Magazine: The editorial staff gives you their heartfelt congratulations, Your Beatitude, for your well-deserved award of the Patriarch Alexei II Prize from the International Foundation for the Unity of Orthodox Peoples for your prominent work to strengthen the unity of Orthodox peoples and to support Christian values in the life of society. How do you feel about this decision and what sentiments do you want to express to Moscow?

His Beatitude: I thank the organizers of this celebration. I regard this honor as being for the Church of Antioch and for the people of its lands who are suffering from terrorism and takfirism. I regard the medal placed on my chest as a testimony of esteem which I in turn will place on the chest of our kidnapped bishops Yuhanna and Paul. Their affair remains a mark of shame for those who falsely give lip-service to human rights. I regard it as a medal that I will place on the chest of every suffering person in this Middle East that longs for peace. Therefore I pray for peace in Syria and stability in Lebanon. It is true that my feelings are mixed with sadness over what is happening in the land of the Church of Antioch, but nevertheless, after the cross, resurrection.